Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Arkansas

Arkansas has faced an alarming number of substance abuse cases among teens and young adults in recent years. In an effort to reduce drug-related activities among those under the age of 30, Arkansas rehab centers are focusing on prevention and recovery programs aimed at young adults.

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Arkansas is mostly rural, with around 44,000 farms covering nearly half the state. Animals items, supply about sixty percent of the state’s farming income, while crops such as rice and soybeans represent the rest. The state also has significant forestland consisting of the Ouachita National Park and the Ozark National Forest. Arkansas is occupied with more than 3 million homeowners and is deemed the thirty-third most populous states an America. The United States Census Bureau approximates in 2016 of this population of Arkansas was eighty percent white, fifteen percent African American and the remaining five percent is mixed race. Hispanics and Latinos make up around three percent of the population. Despite the state’s rural nature, Arkansas has a strong transportation facility that assists in the transportation of both licit and illegal items. Mexican criminal groups are the main source of drug import into Arkansas, they use Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics to transport meth, cocaine, marijuana and black tar heroin to prevent detection from the law enforcement agencies.

Arkansas is among the top ten states with the most methamphetamine (meth, crystal meth) use reported. Meth is a significant drug threat to Arkansas, largely due to the drug’s all set availability and the physical violence and environmental damage that generally emerge from methamphetamine production and usage. Crystal meth is highly addicting and does not discriminate between age, race or class. Home grown labs are a big issue as even with the law limiting the purchase of high amounts of pseudoephedrine meth labs continue to pop up in Arkansas daily.

Find drug statistics and treatment information on the cities listed below:

  • Batesville
  • Bella Vista
  • Benton
  • Bentonville
  • Berryville
  • Blytheville
  • Booneville
  • Brinkley
  • Cabot
  • Camden
  • Cherokee Village
  • Clarksville
  • Conway
  • Corning
  • Danville
  • De Queen
  • El Dorado
  • Fayetteville
  • Fort Smith
  • Gassville
  • Hamburg
  • Hardy
  • Harrison
  • Heber Springs
  • Helena
  • Hope
  • Hot Springs National Park
  • Jacksonville
  • Jonesboro
  • Judsonia
  • Little Rock
  • Magnolia
  • Marianna
  • Marshall
  • Maumelle
  • McGehee
  • Melbourne
  • Mena
  • Monticello
  • Morrilton
  • Morrow
  • Mountain Home
  • Mountain View
  • Newport
  • North Little Rock
  • Paragould
  • Paris
  • Perryville
  • Pine Bluff
  • Pocahontas
  • Rogers
  • Russellville
  • Searcy
  • Sherwood
  • Springdale
  • Stuttgart
  • Texarkana
  • Van Buren
  • Waldron
  • Walnut Ridge
  • Warren
  • West Helena
  • West Memphis
  • Wynne
  • Yellville

Arkansas Addiction Treatment

Substance abuse, specifically involving prescription pain relievers and marijuana, is a dangerous threat to many Arkansas teens and young adults. In 2007 and 2009, Arkansas had some of the highest rates in the country for the non-medical use of prescription pain relievers among those ages 12 and older.

The rate of Arkansas 12th graders using sedatives is triple the national rate. In addition, more than 45 percent of Arkansas youth have experimented with alcohol.

In 2017, HBO released a Documentary ‘Meth Storm’ Explores Drug’s Scourge in Rural Arkansas. Filmmakers Brent and Craig Renaud discuss the film with Here & Now’s Jeremy Hobson:

Highlights from the Interview

On the magnitude of the meth crisis in rural Arkansas:

Craig Renaud: “I think the film is as much about poverty in the state as it is about meth addiction. And you have this perfect storm of these large amounts of methamphetamine coming in, while you have a loss of job opportunities and not a lot of things going on in these communities. And you hear the in the film talk about, back in the days of meth labs, they would be surprised if they saw a pound at a time, and now they’re seeing 40- to 50-pound shipments a week coming into Arkansas. So, the problem has gotten very overwhelming in these communities.”

On how job losses have contributed to the crisis

Brent Renaud: “There’s really been a perfect storm of things that have happened in this area and made it difficult to get jobs. And what we’re looking at now is a situation in which the kids in this film, you hear the sheriff say, ‘I don’t think they had a choice to do anything but get involved with the drug trade.’ We’ve got kids who are now becoming teenagers, they’ve never known anyone who’s had a job, never known anyone who’s gone to college. What do we expect of these kids when we’re not giving them any other opportunities?”

MOST COMMONLY USED DRUGS IN ARKANSAS

Arkansas rehab centers and addiction treatment centers see a wide range of substance abuse cases including:

  • Methamphetamine
  • Marijuana
  • Stimulants
  • Opioids
  • Cocaine
  • Tranquilizers
  • Sedatives

Two of the most accessible drugs in Arkansas are methamphetamine and cocaine. Both substances make their way into the state by Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) via highways I-30 and I-40. Arkansas also has one primary airport, Little Rock National Airport. With service to cities across the U.S. and other major international airports, Little Rock National Airport is frequently used to transport illicit substances.

Over the past several decades, methamphetamine has been a huge concern for Arkansas residents. While wholesale quantities of methamphetamine are generally produced by Mexican DTOs, the number of local manufacturers continues to rise. Once methamphetamine is produced, it is distributed around residential areas, parking lots, bars, clubs and restaurants. Methamphetamine-related violence has affected many communities around the state. For instance, when methamphetamine begins to wear off, the user is prone to severe depression, anxiety, hallucinations and paranoia. In recent years, the percentage of federal sentences involving methamphetamine crime was more than twice the national average.

Meth addicts frequently commit other criminal offenses to support their habit, such as theft or burglary. It is not uncommon for them to commit grand larceny or robbery, which indicates, possession of a weapon while committing the criminal activities. Also, because of the toxicity of methamphetamine, the locations where the laboratories are located, typically one’s home, end up being incredibly harmful and frequently need to be condemned methamphetamine is highly explosive and typically triggers extreme fires that may endanger an entire community.

The production, distribution, and abuse of illicit drugs present a serious risk to Arkansas. Little Rock is the main market location in the state and works as a transit point for drugs being carried to other states. Mexican criminal groups control the transport and distribution of most illicit drugs throughout Arkansas. Local independent dealerships, street gangs, and outlaw motorcycle gangs likewise distribute drugs in the state.

Methamphetamine is a primary drug risk to Arkansas, mainly because of the drug’s availability and the violence and environmental harm that typically arise from methamphetamine production and abuse.

          Methamphetamine is a synthetic (manufactured) chemical, unlike cocaine, for example, which originates from a plant.

Crystal Meth is frequently manufactured in unlawful, concealed labs, blending various forms of amphetamine (another stimulant drug) or derivatives with other chemicals to enhance its strength. Typical pills for cold treatments are often used as the basis to produce the drug. The meth “cook” extracts active ingredients from those tablets and to increase its strength integrates the substance with chemicals such as battery acid, drain cleaner, lantern fuel and antifreeze.

These harmful chemicals are potentially explosive and since the meth cooks are drug users themselves and disoriented, they are frequently seriously burned and injured or killed when their preparations blow up. Such accidents threaten others in nearby houses or structures. The unlawful laboratories create a lot of toxic waste too– the production of one pound of methamphetamine produces five pounds of waste. People exposed to this waste product can end up being poisoned and sick.

According to(justice.gov) “Law enforcement officials in Arkansas report that methamphetamine abuse is a significant problem throughout the state. In response to the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) National Drug Threat Survey (NDTS) 2002, all of the 24 law enforcement respondents in Arkansas indicated that methamphetamine abuse was high in their jurisdictions.”

Another common drug in Arkansas is cocaine. While powdered cocaine is frequently available in large and small cities, crack cocaine is usually only found in urban areas. Similar to methamphetamine, whole quantities of cocaine are transported from Mexico. Street gangs and independent dealers also distribute cocaine, but in smaller quantities at a local level. 

Cocaine, particularly crack, poses a significant threat to Arkansas because it is readily available, highly addictive, and frequently associated with violent crime. Powdered cocaine is available throughout most of the state, while crack cocaine primarily is available in the larger cities. Mexican criminal groups dominate the transportation of powdered cocaine into Arkansas, smuggling the drug from Mexico through California and southwestern states to Arkansas primarily in private and commercial vehicles. These groups also dominate wholesale powdered cocaine distribution throughout the state. African American street gangs and local independent dealers also distribute some powdered cocaine at the wholesale level. African American street gangs and local independent dealers are the primary distributors of powdered and crack cocaine at the retail level. Mexican criminal groups also distribute powdered cocaine at the retail level, but to a lesser extent. African American street gangs and local independent dealers typically convert powdered cocaine into crack for retail distribution at or near distribution sites.

What is Cocaine?

The word cocaine refers to the drug in a powder or crystal form. The powder is generally mixed with compounds such as corn starch, talcum powder and/or sugar or other drugs such as procaine (a local anesthetic) or amphetamines. Extracted from coca leaves, the drug was initially established as a painkiller. It is usually sniffed, with the powder taken in into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. It can also be ingested or rubbed into the gums. To more rapidly absorb the drug into the body, abusers inject it, however, this substantially increases the risk of overdose. Inhaling it as smoke or vapor speeds absorption with less health danger than injection.

The drug is among the most dangerous drugs understood by man. Once a person begins taking the drug, it has actually proven almost impossible to become devoid of its grip physically and mentally. Physically it promotes key receptors (nerve endings that sense changes in the body) within the brain that, in turn, develop a euphoria to which users rapidly establish a tolerance. Just greater dosages and more regular usage can produce the same result.

Today, cocaine is an around the world, multibillion-dollar enterprise. Users encompass any ages, professions and financial levels, even schoolchildren as young as 8 years old.

Cocaine use can lead to death from breathing failure, stroke, cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) or cardiac arrest. Children of cocaine-addicted mothers enter the world as addicts themselves. Numerous suffer birth defects and numerous other issues.

Regardless of its dangers, cocaine usage continues to increase– likely because users find it so hard to escape from the primary steps removed the long dark roadway that results in dependency.

Users of cocaine report having these symptoms:

Physical signs vary depending on the way the drug is ingested:

·         Large pupils.

·         Nasal issues, Runny nose, Nose bleeds (snorting)

·         Track marks (intravenous)

·         Burned fingers or lips (smoking, freebase, crack)

 

Mental and health symptoms:

·         Hallucinations

·         Paranoia

·         Overconfidence

·         Mood changes

·         Excitable

·         Hostile

·         Poor judgement

·         Delusional thinking

·         Euphoria

·         Elevated heart rate

·         Constricted blood vessels

·         Enlarged heart

·         Heart attack

·         Death

After using cocaine for an extended period, a user most often will experience:

·         Depression

·         Irritation

·         Immense cravings

·         Requires a higher dose(tolerance)

·         Lack of interest and motivation

·         Extremely tired

·         Sleeping all the time

Seeking treatment for an addiction is a major step toward long-term recovery. Contact us today and find the right facility for you.

NDIC National Drug Threat Survey

“The National Drug Threat Survey 2002 was administered by NDIC to a representative sample of state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States to assess the availability, abuse, and overall threat posed by all major drugs. NDIC received 2,906 survey responses from law enforcement agencies, an overall response rate of 80 percent. Survey respondents were asked to rank the greatest drug threats to their areas and to indicate the level of availability for each major drug type. They also were asked to provide information on specific groups involved in the transportation and distribution of illicit drugs. Responding agencies also provided narrative assessments of various aspects of the overall drug situation and the threat that specific drugs posed to their areas. Survey responses are used by NDIC to substantiate and augment drug threat information obtained from other federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.”

“Amphetamine-related treatment admissions to publicly funded facilities in Arkansas increased by 80 percent from 1,547 in 1998 to 2,781 in 2002, according to the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). (Nationwide, 95 percent of the amphetamine-related treatment admissions reported to TEDS are methamphetamine-related.) The Arkansas Department of Health reports that the number of amphetamine-related treatment admissions, which includes methamphetamine-related admissions, increased by 64 percent from 1,822 in SFY1998 to 2,993 in SFY2002.” (See Table 1 in Overview section.) (Disparities between federal and state reporting on admissions to substance abuse treatment programs likely occur because of differences in data collection and reporting methodologies.)

“Methamphetamine abuse among adolescents in Arkansas is statistically comparable to the national rate. According to the 2001 YRBS, 11.8 percent of students in grades 9 through 12 in Arkansas reported having used methamphetamine at least once in their lifetime, compared to 9.8 percent nationwide.”

“Methamphetamine is readily available throughout Arkansas. In response to the NDTS 2002, all of the 24 law enforcement respondents in Arkansas indicated that methamphetamine availability was high in their jurisdictions. Methamphetamine produced in Mexico, California, and southwestern states is widely available in Arkansas; however, methamphetamine produced in the state also is available. In addition, crystal methamphetamine, commonly referred to as ice, is available in the state and, according to the DEA New Orleans Division, crystal methamphetamine seizures have increased in the Fayetteville area.”

Crystal Meth Crisis

Crystal methamphetamine is white or almost clear in color. It is typically snorted, smoked, injected or consumed orally. Methamphetamine promotes the main nerve system of the brain flooding the brain with dopamine, a neurotransmitter connected to the sensations of pleasure, pain and bodily motion. This increase of dopamine in the brain cannot be duplicated naturally, to feel that sensation once again a user needs to utilize meth again. This rush of ecstasy is extremely addictive and makes it tough for a newly sober addict to keep sobriety. Methamphetamine supplies a rush that lasts anywhere from 6 to 24 hours at a time leaving users wide-eyed and racing. Individuals frequently binge for days until they reach a paranoid, whacky state of mind known as “tweaking.”.

Users have an increased energy level and can preserve interest in activities that would normally bore them. Users frequently feel superhuman, more intelligent and observant. They might end up being extremely talkative or withdraw into a world of their own. Users hunger is almost nonexistent and is really tempting to somebody who is attempting to drop weight. After lots of days awake and using meth over a prolonged period will cause a drug-induced psychosis, a condition where the person has a break from the truth. The length and intensity of the psychosis will depend upon just how much and for how long the individual has been using methamphetamine. Oftentimes once the user is in a drug-induced psychosis it could be days, years or long-term mental illness.

Physical signs and dangers of persons related with meth use:

·         Weight loss.

·         Rotting teeth, (meth mouth).

·         Dilated pupils.

·         Face sores, acne. (Meth face)

·         Insomnia.

·         Increased energy.

·         Confusion.

·         Paranoia, suspicion.

·         Irritability, irrational behavior or mood swings.

·         Increased libido.

·         HIV or other sexual transmitted disease.

·         Liver damage.

·         Stroke.

·         Death.

“According to the Federal-wide Drug Seizure System (FDSS), federal law enforcement officials in Arkansas seized 13.8 kilograms of methamphetamine in 1998, 15.7 kilograms in 1999, 9.1 kilograms in 2000, 9.2 kilograms in 2001, and 14.8 kilograms in 2002. In addition, the Arkansas State Police seized more than 1.3 kilograms of methamphetamine in 2001 and more than 37.0 kilograms in 2002.”

“The percentage of federal sentences that were methamphetamine-related in Arkansas was more than twice the national percentage. According to USSC in 2001, 33% of drug-related federal sentences in Arkansas were methamphetamine-related, compared with 14% nationwide.” (See Table below.) There were 63 federal sentences for methamphetamine-related offenses in Arkansas in 1997, 63 in 1998, 50 in 1999, 62 in 2000, and 55 in 2001.”

Percentage of Drug-Related Federal Sentences for Methamphetamine, Arkansas and United States, 1997-2001

 

Arkansas

United States

1997

30.8%

10.2%

1998

35.5%

11.4%

1999

27.9%

12.8%

2000

41.9%

14.5%

2001

33.3%

14.2%

Source: U.S. Sentencing Commission.

“Violence associated with methamphetamine distribution also is a concern to law enforcement officials in Arkansas. Methamphetamine distributors sometimes commit violent crimes to defend or expand their distribution territory. Street gangs that distribute methamphetamine reportedly have committed aggravated assault, drive by shooting, and homicide. Arkansas law enforcement respondents to the NDIC National Gang Survey 2000 reported that the following gangs distribute methamphetamine and commit violent crimes in their jurisdictions: Gangster Disciples, Tiny Oriental Crips, Young Oriental Gangsters, and 8th Street in Fort Smith and Mara Salvatrucha in Rogers.”

“Methamphetamine production and abuse in Arkansas adversely affect children. Children are exposed to toxic chemicals and byproducts when methamphetamine laboratories are operated in or near their homes. In addition, children of methamphetamine laboratory operators often are abused or neglected. According to EPIC, 76 children were found at methamphetamine laboratory sites in Arkansas during 2002.”

“The number of methamphetamine laboratories seized in Arkansas increased overall from 1998 through 2002. According to EPIC, the number of laboratories, chemicals, glassware, and dumpsites seized in Arkansas increased from 239 in FY1998 to 383 in FY1999. Thereafter, the number of such seizures stabilized: 392 were seized in FY2000, 393 in FY2001, and 386 in FY2002. In addition, the Arkansas State Crime Laboratory reports that 428 methamphetamine laboratories, dumpsites, or chemicals and glassware were seized statewide in calendar year 1998, 552 in 1999, 780 in 2000, 853 in 2001, 955 in 2002, and 749 in the first 7 months of 2003. (See Table 3.) (Disparities between federal and state reporting on seizures of methamphetamine laboratories occur because of differences in data collection and reporting methodologies.) Most of these laboratories were relatively small, rudimentary, and portable, making their detection a challenge for law enforcement authorities. A number of these laboratories were located in apartments, single-family homes, hotel rooms, vehicles, and abandoned barns and farmhouses.”

Methamphetamine Laboratory Seizures, Arkansas, 1998-2002

 

Number of Laboratories Seized

1998

428

1999

552

2000

780

2001

853

2002

955

(Source: Arkansas State Police.)

“The iodine/red phosphorus method of methamphetamine production is predominantly found at methamphetamine laboratories seized in Arkansas. According to the Arkansas State Crime Laboratory, 40 percent of the methamphetamine laboratories seized statewide in 2000 used the iodine/red phosphorus method compared with 62 percent in 2002. Iodine/red phosphorus laboratories have been seized in Conway, Fayetteville, Fort Smith, Greenwood, Hot Springs, Jonesboro, Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Searcy, Siloam Springs, Springdale, Texarkana, and West Memphis. The Birch reduction method of methamphetamine production also is used in the state and is common in the agricultural areas of Arkansas because of the wide availability of anhydrous ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia is used legitimately as a fertilizer but is diverted by methamphetamine producers as an essential chemical for production of the drug. The percentage of Birch reduction laboratories seized statewide dropped from 35 percent in 2000 to 17 percent in 2002. Birch reduction laboratories have been seized in Conway, Fayetteville, Fort Smith, Hot Springs, Jonesboro, Little Rock, Morrilton, Pine Bluff, Searcy, Springdale, Siloam Springs, and Texarkana. The P2P production method is used less frequently in Arkansas. Methamphetamine laboratories using the P2P method have been seized in Little Rock, Morrilton, Pine Bluff, and Springdale.”

“The chemicals used in methamphetamine production are readily available in Arkansas. Anhydrous ammonia often is stolen from farms and farm supply outlets. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine can be extracted from diet pills and many over-the-counter cold medicines using coffee filters, coffeepots, tabletop grills, and microwave ovens. Iodine can be purchased at local feed stores, and lithium often is extracted from camera batteries.”

Feed Store Owner Convicted for Distributing Iodine Crystals

“In May 2002 a federal grand jury convicted a Sallisaw, Oklahoma, feed store owner on 12 charges, including conspiracy to distribute listed chemicals, possession and distribution of listed chemicals, conspiracy to commit money laundering, and money laundering, related to selling iodine crystals to produce methamphetamine. From January 1998 to September 2000, the feed store owner bought nearly 5,000 pounds of iodine crystals at a cost of $8 per ounce. The feed store owner allegedly sold the iodine crystals for $50 per ounce to individuals in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, knowing they would be used to produce methamphetamine. The feed store owner allegedly made a profit of more than $3.3 million from the sale of the iodine crystals.”

(Source: U.S. Attorney’s Office Eastern District of Oklahoma.)

Police Seize Largest Methamphetamine Laboratory Ever Discovered in Arkansas

“In May 2003 officers with the Fort Smith Police Department and Arkansas State Police, along with a team of chemists from the Arkansas State Crime Laboratory and environmental specialists from a private waste disposal company, assisted with the cleanup and dismantling of the largest methamphetamine laboratory ever seized in the state. More than 500 pounds of volatile chemicals were found in an unoccupied house in the Fort Smith Historic District. Fort Smith Police Department officers, assisted by Arkansas State Police officers, seized the laboratory, which had been operating for approximately 6 months and was used to produce one-half pound of methamphetamine per week but can produce much larger quantities. It is believed that the methamphetamine producer, a 42-year-old man, was using the Birch reduction method of production. The principal chemicals associated with that method include ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, anhydrous ammonia, and sodium or lithium metal. The suspect, who was charged with intent to manufacture methamphetamine, had sealed the house with plastic sheeting and duct tape to contain the chemical odors.”

(Source: Fort Smith Police Department; Arkansas State Crime Laboratory.)

Methamphetamine Seized Along Interstate 40

“In July 2001 Arkansas State Police seized 11 pounds of methamphetamine with an estimated street value of $1.5 million. The drug was seized from two women from California, en route from Los Angeles to Little Rock, traveling in a private vehicle eastbound on I-40 in Pope County. The women were pulled over by an Arkansas State Police officer for a traffic violation. During the stop, the officer conducted a consensual search of the vehicle and found the methamphetamine in the trunk and bumper of the car. The methamphetamine was wrapped with fabric softener sheets and smeared with dried mustard to mask its odor. The women were arrested and charged with possession of a controlled substance with intent to deliver. This was the largest methamphetamine seizure in the state in 2001.”

(Source: 5th Judicial Drug Task Force.)

Arkansas man gets 10 years in meth-poisoning death of infant son.

“A northeast Arkansas man has been sentenced to 10 years in prison in the methamphetamine-related death of his infant son, authorities said.

Johnny Richard Sr., 30, of Blytheville entered into a plea agreement Monday on a charge of manslaughter, according to a news release from Second Judicial District Prosecuting Attorney Scott Ellington’s office.

Richard was the father of a 4-month-old infant who died from meth poisoning in August, court records show.

The child, Johnny Ray Richard Jr., was taken to a hospital Aug. 20 and pronounced dead on arrival, The Associated Press previously reported. An autopsy report concluded that the boy died from meth toxicity.

Richard’s wife, 32-year-old Christina Richard, also faces a manslaughter charge in the child’s death. She has a court appearance set for March 29.

The parents were each initially arrested on a charge of second-degree murder, police said.”

Laws of Arkansas Drug Use

Drug-related crimes are harshly punished in Arkansas. To determine the severity of legal penalties, substances are organized into six schedules. Schedules I and II include highly addictive and dangerous drugs such as opiates, hallucinogenic substances and narcotic drugs. Schedules V and VI are made up of substances that have a low risk of dependency and are often used for medical purposes. The drugs in schedules V and VI encompass depressants, some stimulants and narcotic drugs that contain nonnarcotic active medicinal ingredients.

Criminal charges involving drugs are classified as either a misdemeanor or felony. Misdemeanors are broken into three classes: A, B and C. Class A misdemeanor penalties are the toughest, and entail longer jail time and higher fines. Felonies are more serious crimes that can be classified in five ways: Class Y, A, B, C and D. Class Y involves the most dangerous crimes, whereas class D is the least serious of the felonies.

In Arkansas, misdemeanors are criminal activities punishable by approximately one year in county or local jail. Misdemeanors in Arkansas might be designated as Class A, B, or C. Some misdemeanors are unclassified. For unclassified criminal activities, the sentence will be stated in the criminal statute. (Ark. Code § 5-4-401.) More severe criminal activities, called felonies, are punishable by state prison terms

Arkansas Crimes by Class and Sentence:

·         Class A Misdemeanors. A Class A misdemeanor is the most serious kind of misdemeanor in Arkansas and it is punishable by as much as one year in jail and a fine of as much as $2,500. (Ark. Code § § 5-4-401, 5-4-201.) Drug paraphernalia possession or as much as 4 ounces of cannabis for individual usage is a Class A misdemeanor.

·         A conviction for a Class B misdemeanor can lead to a prison for approximately 3months and a penalty of as much as $1,000. (Ark. Code § § 5-4-401, 5-4-201.) Prostitution is an example of a Class B misdemeanor.

·         Class C misdemeanors are the less severe misdemeanors in Arkansas, punishable by approximately one month in jail and a penalty of approximately $500. (Ark. Code § § 5-4-401, 5-4-201.) Public drunkenness is a Class C misdemeanor.

·         Class D felonies are the least severe felonies in Arkansas, carrying a penalty of approximately 6 years in prison and a fine of as much as $10,000. (Ark. Code § § 5-4-401, 5-4-201.) Aggravated assault or forcing a person to participate in prostitution are both examples of a Class D felony.

It is impossible to talk about drug dependency without mentioning its unavoidable link to crime. If the dependency is unattended it not only affects the addict and their loved ones, however, snowballs the entire community. Addiction relates to violent criminal activities like theft, child abuse, rape, domestic violence, and murder. 

With drug addiction constantly increasing throughout Arkansas and the entire nation, law enforcement is trying to understand and find a solution to this serious issue. These law enforcement authorities suggest that dependency is perhaps the most common element that private detectives in addition to policemen should contend with when reporting to a criminal offense. It appears that drug dependency and criminal activity are linked because substance abuse supplies the motive for criminal offenses such as shoplifting, burglary, as well as more serious criminal offenses. 

Alcohol plays a big function also in criminal activities and violence. Consuming too much alcohol minimizes your inhibitions, damage an individual’s reasoning and increase the hazard of hostile behaviors. Because of this, alcohol-related violence and criminal activity rates are on the increase throughout the nation. 

Over the past many years, scientists have examined the connection between alcohol, drugs and criminal offense. The information has revealed that engaging in long-term use of alcohol abuse increases the chance of committing a violent offence. The unsafe effects of alcohol can change your life in an immediate. You are not simply threatening your future, you are in addition putting others in danger. Lawbreaker activities include extreme consequences such as time in jail, legal costs and different other court-ordered fines.

Crimes Connected to Alcohol and Drug Addiction:

  • Domestic Abuse
  • Violent Attacks
  • Child abuse
  • Driving under the influence (Alcohol or Drugs).
  • Sexual assault.
  • Shoplifting, theft and robbery

Picture all the death and crimes noted above here relate solely to alcohol and drug addiction are preventable. Getting treatment is the most effective method to treat addiction. A treatment program will have the ability to help you quit drinking or drugging and deal treatment to get to the underlying causes. For instance, if you become violent and aggressive after drinking, treatment specialists will certainly can handle you with anger management skills. In treatment, you will find out other methods to handle your dependency by going to educational groups and peer treatment to get feedback in addition to music therapy and workout. It is vital to understand that recovery does not occur over night and takes devotion after you have left rehab. Nevertheless, there are plenty of on-going treatment programs that will encourage you in maintaining your sobriety and living a healthy life.

 

Cocaine Laws in Arkansas

According to (statelaws.findlaw.com) “Federal law and state laws all prohibit the trafficking, sale, and possession of cocaine. While the federal Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) enforces drug prohibition under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act, the agency typically goes after organized crime, trafficking, and large-scale operations. State courts handle most drug cases, mostly possession-related charges. A growing number of states have implemented “drug courts” as a way of providing addicts with treatment and probation in exchange for a guilty plea.”

“Cocaine and methamphetamines are in their own category with respect to charges and sentences, which are generally more severe than for other Schedule I or Schedule II drugs. For instance, possession of 12 grams of cocaine with the intent to deliver is charged as a Class A felony (six to 30 years in prison), but possession of the same amount of heroin with the intent to deliver is a Class B felony (five to 20 years in prison)”

·         Code Section: 5-64-401, et seq.

·         Possession: Less than 2 grams: Class D felony; 2-10 grams: Class C felony; 10-200 grams: Class B felony (more than 200 grams is automatically considered intent to deliver)

·         Sale (Possession with Intent to Deliver): Less than 2 grams: Class C felony; 2-10 grams: Class B felony; 10-200 grams: Class A felony; 10-200 grams: Class Y felony (more than 200 grams is still a Class Y felony, but carries a heavier sentence); Subsequent offense: double penalties; increased penalties within 1000 ft. of school, city or state park, school bus stop, skating rink, community center, recreation center, public housing project, drug treatment center, day care center, place of worship, or shelter.

·         Trafficking: 1 g. of cocaine in possession creates a rebuttable presumption of intent to deliver

·         Drug Court Available? Yes

Marijuana Laws in Arkansas

Arkansas drug laws allow some discretion by the court, with the possibility for up to one year of incarceration for possession of small amounts. The state also imposes mandatory minimum sentences for possession of more than 10 pounds or sale of more than 4 ounces. Possession of more than 500 pounds is considered trafficking, or “presumption of intent” to traffic.

Possession of marijuana paraphernalia including pipes, bongs, scales, bowls and rolling paper is also punishable in Arkansas.

“Marijuana laws are different from state to state, even though federal law prohibits marijuana’s, many states across the country are legalizing herb every day. Many states also permit the medicinal use of marijuana with a doctor written prescription, but each state has a different method to regulation. Arkansas is one of more than 25 states which permits for medicinal use for specific medical issues. But most often, states do not convict individuals as harshly for marijuana offenses as they do for other drugs, such as heroin or methamphetamines.”

“Arkansas drug laws permit a court to use their discretion often, with the chance for up to one year of jail time for possession of small amounts. The state also imposes mandatory minimum sentences for possession of more than 10 pounds or sale of more than 4 ounces. Possession of more than 500 pounds is considered trafficking, or “presumption of intent” to traffic.”

Additional details about Arkansas’s current marijuana laws are listed in the following table. See FindLaw’s Drug Charges and Patient Rights sections for more information.

·         Code Section     5-64-101, et seq.

·         Possession          Less than 4 oz., 1st offense: Class A misdemeanor (max. 1 yr., $2,500 fine); 1-4 oz., and any subsequent offense: Class D felony (max. 6 yrs., $10,000 fine); 4 oz. – 10 lbs.: max. 6 yrs., $10,000 fine; 10-25 lbs.: mandatory min. 3 yrs. – max. 10 yrs. and $10,000 fine; 25-100 lbs.: mandatory min. 5 yrs. – max. 20 yrs. and $15,000 fine; 100-500 lbs.: mandatory min. 6 yrs. – max. 30 yrs. and $15,000 fine.

·         Sale/Delivery     14 g or less: misdemeanor (max. 1 yr., $2,500 fine); 14 g – 4 oz.: felony (max. 6 yrs., $10,000); 4 oz. – 25 lbs.: mandatory min. 3 yrs. – max. 10 yrs. and $10,000 fine; 25-100 lbs.: mandatory min. 5 yrs. – max. 20 yrs. and $15,000 fine; 100-500 lbs.: mandatory min. 6 yrs. – max. 30 yrs. and $15,000 fine; increased penalty within 1000 ft. of school.

·         Trafficking           500 lbs. or more (presumption of intent to traffic): mandatory min. 10 yrs. – max. 40 yrs., $15,000 fine.

Arkansas Drug Court Programs

 Arkansas Drug court programs are an interdisciplinary, non-adversarial judicial procedure for diverting an offender (or alleged wrongdoer) who has shown signs of addiction to alcohol or illegal drugs, into a difficult treatment program that consists of regular drug testing, substance abuse treatment, and therapy and regular drug testing as the court monitors program compliance. Drug courts are normally staffed by a group consisting of the judge and court staff, a prosecutor, a public defender or personal attorney representing the offender, a probation or parole officer and drug counselor. Treatment services are supplied through community services. Many treatment programs last an average of eighteen months.

Arkansas currently has 39 drug court programs functioning throughout the state. Some are pre-adjudication locations while others are post-adjudication. Some are a combination of both. This differs based on the needs of the community in which the court program is developed.

Although information in Arkansas is restricted, preliminary reports suggest that drug court programs are affordable and do save the state in imprisonment expenses. It costs around $4.50 each day for a culprit taking part in a drug court program. In comparison, the typical cost daily for incarceration in Arkansas is $45.00. The treatment program in drug court averages eighteen months while the length of incarceration is regularly a lot longer. In addition, lots of individuals perform public service in their neighborhoods while maintaining employment during the treatment program, thus preventing additional welfare expenses and foster care expenditures by the state in assistance of their households. The final cost savings is understood in the improved health of the participant once they have effectively transitioned from drug or alcohol dependence to a healthier way of life.

·         In 2016 Arkansas had opioid prescribing rates higher than the national average in 66 of 75 counties.

 

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Educational Effort

In July 2017, Arkansas Attorney General Leslie Rutledge revealed today at the Arkansas Sheriffs’ Association meeting in Rogers a first-in-the-nation education effort called “Prescription for Life” including a digital platform to be offered at no cost to all high school students in the State to assist them comprehend the threats of prescription drug abuse and how to avoid abuse.

“Talking about the harmful impact of prescription drug abuse with children and teenagers can no longer be a goal. It has to be a reality,” said Attorney General Rutledge. “Arkansas ranks first in the nation for ages 12 to 17 in misuse of painkillers. Reversing this trend is a top priority of mine. Prescription for Life will be available to every high school student in Arkansas beginning this fall.” (arkansasag.gov).

Prescription for Life will come at no cost to participating schools. Using an evidence-based public health method, the digital course will empower high school students with the abilities and understanding they must ensure and healthy decisions about prescription drugs. The course will be lined up with the Centers for Disease Control’s National Health Education Standards and State academic standards.

The self-paced modular course will utilize video, animations, simulations and interactivity to deliver a personalized, self-guided knowing experience. The real-life simulations will demonstrate the impact misuse can have on trainees’ physical and psychological health, relationships and future objectives while the scenario-based exercises will assist students practice the best ways to support other students in their choices regarding the safe use of prescription drugs.

·        Drug overdose deaths are on the rise in Arkansas, increasing from 287 in 2015 to 335 in 2016, according to information from the State Criminal Activity Laboratory. More than 40 percent of teenagers in Arkansas have actually tried prescription drugs and over half of all teenager’s report that it is simple to obtain prescription drugs from their moms and dads’ or grandparents’ medicine cabinets. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Solutions reports that in between 59,000 and 65,000 individuals passed away from drug overdoses in 2016, up from 52,404 in 2015 and double the death rate a decade earlier. That is more than the variety of deaths from vehicle accidents in 2016. And according to the Centers for Disease Control, most of drug overdose deaths– 6 out of 10– involve an opioid.

Addiction Treatment Laws in Arkansas

Harm reduction laws in Arkansas aim to reduce the negative impact of substance abuse on individuals, family members, friends and the community. Lawmakers view addiction as a treatable disease and work to provide information about healthy living. The laws help people on their own terms and give them time to overcome an addiction at their own pace.

Addiction Treatment Laws in Arkansas

In 2010, Arkansas Drug Take Back was implemented in an effort to educate residents about secure and safe ways to get rid of old, unused prescription medications.

Through Arkansas Drug Take Back, you can dispose of:

  • Prescription medicines
  • Over-the-counter medicines
  • Vitamins
  • Pet medicines
  • Medicated ointments and lotions
  • Inhalers
  • Certain liquid medicines
  • Medicine samples

Arkansas Drug Take Back has over 100 collection sites across the state to ensure proper disposal of expired or unused prescription medications.

Improper disposal of leftover and expired medications put children, pets and the environment at risk. With Arkansas Drug Take Back, individuals can keep those around them safe while also protecting the environment.

Methadone Clinics in Arkansas

Arkansas has a number of methadone clinics available to help opioid users overcome an addiction. Methadone is commonly used by treatment centers to reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Generally, you will need to meet with a counselor on a frequent basis when you begin taking methadone. The counselor will provide you with information on how to manage triggers and prevent relapse. For the first 90 days, you will receive random drug tests to ensure you’re not currently abusing drugs. Afterwards, meetings will become less frequent.

High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Program

In an effort to combat well-coordinated drug activity, Arkansas is part of the Arkansas-Gulf Coast High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) program. With access to innovative technology and equipment, law enforcement agencies from around the state are able to identify and fight drug organizations. The primary focus of the Arkansas-Gulf Coast HIDTA is to dismantle methamphetamine trafficking organizations and reduce the number of drug shipments from Mexico to the Midwest and eastern states.

Treatment Centers in Arkansas

Arkansas’s Division of Behavioral Health was started by Act 644 of 1977. The division’s primary responsibilities are to distribute federal funds to treatment and prevention programs, as well as oversee local community facilities.

Priority admission for funded treatment programs follows the structure below:

  • Pregnant women and injection drug users (IDU)
  • Individuals with the greatest clinical need
  • People from their Catchment Area
  • Residents of Arkansas
  • Residents of other states

In addition, the Division of Behavioral Health helps with developing educational programs about substance abuse and other prevention resources. Serving all 75 counties in Arkansas, the division is a great source for addiction referral services and getting community members back on their feet after substance abuse.

When exploring addiction treatment options, consider facilities both locally and out of state. Sometimes an out-of-state facility may provide the amenities, types of therapy and other services that are important to you.

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Residents of Arkansas are entering treatment facilities everyday day for addiction to crystal meth, cocaine, marijuana and heroin. Most people cannot comprehend why people become addicted to drugs or how drugs change the brain to cultivate compulsive substance abuse. They incorrectly view drug abuse and addiction as strictly a social or cultural problem for the poor and morally jaded individuals. One typical belief is that drug abusers ought to have the ability to just have the willpower to stop drinking or using the harmful substance.

Well, that way of thinking certainly makes sense to the normal person, however being an addict is not a lifestyle choice. What people frequently underestimate is the intricacy of drug addiction, that it is an illness that impacts the brain, and since that is the case, just stopping, is not a reasonable option. Through clinical studies experts have learned much more about how precisely drugs work in the brain, and they also know that drug addiction can be effectively dealt with to help individuals who wish to stop abusing drugs and resume productive lives.

Addiction is a complicated condition, a brain disease that appears by compulsive substance use despite the damaging effect. A person with addiction has an extreme need to use alcohol or drugs, to the point that it is all they can think about it, and it controls their whole life. They suffer with an uncontrollable compulsion to focus on where they can get their next drink or drug. They will continue to use alcohol or drugs even when they know it will causes issues. Yet a variety of effective treatments are available, and individuals can recover from addiction and lead regular, productive lives.

Addiction to alcohol or drugs most often starts off very innocently, the individual at one point seems to cross an invisible line into dependence on the substance they are using. When a person abuses a substance over a period the brain chemistry is changed, and this is what causes the “phenomenon of craving for more” that makes it tough to stop on their own. Specific studies on the brain have concluded that the areas changed by addiction relate to judgment, behavior control, learning, memory and decision making. These substances can cause harmful changes in how the brain functions. These changes can last long after the immediate intoxication from drugs or alcohol wear off.

The impact that addiction has on a person is powerful in addition to long-term. Addiction emerges in three unique ways: intense craving for the drug, loss of control (cannot stop using or drinking) and continuing to use despite damaging consequences. Addiction can begin with innocent use of alcohol or drugs in a social situation that eventually leads to more frequent use. For others, especially with opioids, drug addiction starts with direct exposure to prescribed pain relievers (Oxycodone, Vicodin) or benzodiazepines (Klonopin, Xanax) by the family physician or possibly a well-meaning friend. The hazard of addiction along with exactly how quick you end up being addicted depends entirely on the substance that is being used some drugs, such as opioid pain relievers, have a higher danger of quicker addiction than other substances. Tolerance (body’s ability to endure or become less responsive to a substance) can build easily with opiate use, before a person realizes it they are reliant on the medication. In “Arkansas, a new study shows the prescription drug problem is so prevalent there are enough pills on the street for each of Arkansas’ almost 3 million citizens to have a full bottle. The Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) recently reported that all but nine of Arkansas’ 75 counties had overall opioid prescribing rates higher than the national average of 66.5 prescriptions per 100 people. As a state, Arkansas has an opioid prescription rate of 114.6 per 100 people.”

“The new CDC data released July 26 also shows that several Arkansas counties had prescribing rates exceeding 130 per 100 people, which is double the national average. In Greene County, located in northeast Arkansas north of Jonesboro, 177.8 pills are dispensed per capita. Garland and Sebastian counties have the second and third-highest opioid prescription rate at 176 and 169 pills, respectively.”

“Four other counties across the state, including Howard, Jackson, Little River and Stone, dispense at least 150 pills for every 100 people. By far, Newton and Cleveland counties have the lowest rate of opioid prescriptions with an average of 0.8 and 1.1 pill dispensed for every 100 citizens”

Addiction, is having two different definitions. One meaning describes the physical addiction, this is a biological state where the body adapts to the existence of a drug, so after a while they no longer feel the effect. Another kind of physical addiction is the brains compulsive need to use more drugs (or to cues connected with the drugs). An alcoholic walking into a bar, for example, will feel an extra pull to have a beverage because of these cues. This is a thinking disease with a high relapse rate that is why rehabilitation is important for the addict to learn about his disease and have a higher success rate of long term recovery. 

Addiction Overview

Most addictive behavior is not connected to either physical tolerance or direct exposure to cues. Individuals typically use substances, gamble, shop or eat compulsively in reaction to stress, whether they have a physical addiction or not. Therefore, people will switch from one addiction to another without proper treatment. The focus of the addiction isn’t what matters its having to act out a specific way to relieve certain kinds of stress.

Addiction does not happen to everyone, research has shown that it may be genetic or learned behavior. Though this is not exact to every case of addiction, lots of variables can affect the possibility that somebody will be vulnerable to alcohol or drug addiction, consisting of both ecological aspects along family history. Because addiction is a complicated illness, finding the gene that triggers addiction can be a hard procedure. Numerous genes and ecological elements might add up to make a person at risk, or they might terminate each other out. Not every addict will have precisely the same genetics, and everyone who carries the addiction gene will not end up being an addict. Scientist study large families to find out which genes might make an individual more prone to addiction. Studies have revealed the kids whose parents abuse drugs or alcohol are most likely to be susceptible to some form of addiction in their lifetime. Increasingly more research is being done every day to try to isolate the addiction gene. There is no known cure for addiction, however the medical community has discovered many new medications, that can assist alcoholics and drug addicts through the tough withdrawal period as well as help them achieve long term success in recovery.

Intervention

It can be difficult to approach a person having an issue with addiction. Although loved ones mean well they might they might not know exactly what to state or do. The friends and family of the alcoholic or addict often feel helpless and hopeless. Typically attempts that are made by the family to talk with the addicted person about their drug or alcohol usage are met with rejection that they even have a problem. This can make the conversation a lot more difficult.

Exterior indicators someone is having a difficult time may consist of:

·         Weight loss.

·         Acquiring loans (loan concern).

·         Hostile actions.

·         Health problems.

·         Lack of energy or inspiration.

·         Distance from family.

·         Modification of good friends (no friends, isolation).

·         Secretive Habits

·         Haggard look.

·         Tardiness to work, no call absence.

·         Legal problems.

A great deal of people with addiction fight lots of other problems, like anxiety along with eating disorders. If you presume your loved one is using drugs or alcohol call a professional interventionist and get an assessment.

Withdrawal takes place when you stop taking alcohol or drugs since your brain works like a spring when it concerns addiction. Drugs and alcohol are brain depressants that lower the spring. They suppress your brain’s production of neurotransmitters like noradrenaline. When you stop using drugs or alcohol it’s like taking the weight off the spring, and your brain rebounds by producing a rise of adrenaline that causes withdrawal symptoms.

Every substance is unique. Some drugs produce substantial physical withdrawal (alcohol, opiates, and tranquilizers). Some drugs produce little physical withdrawal, but more psychological withdrawal (cocaine, marijuana, and ecstasy). Every person’s physical withdrawal pattern is also different. You may experience little physical withdrawal. But that does not mean that you’re not addicted, instead, you may experience more psychological withdrawal.

For the last several years, between 8 and 10 percent of the American adult population aged 12 and older required specialized treatment for an alcohol or drug abuse or dependency problem, the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) reports. Numerous treatment programs begin with a detox program that can be either residential or outpatient, depending on the scenarios. Both types of programs might make use of medications to handle withdrawal signs that can be uncomfortable and even hazardous if left without treatment. Withdrawal signs are typically accompanied by drug cravings. They can be both physical and emotional, and they can include nausea, throwing up, muscle aches, diarrhea, headaches, irregular heart rate, fever, sweats, chills, insomnia, uneasiness, anxiety, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, shaking and seizures.

Depending on the substances that is being abused withdrawal signs will vary it is extremely important to seek help from a professional prior to quitting cold turkey.

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Arkansas Rehabilitation

There are 2 kinds of treatment for drug or alcohol abuse, inpatient and outpatient treatment. Inpatient treatment is much more intense and may include medical detox depending on how severe your withdrawal symptoms are. While inpatient you will have access to an alcohol and drug counselor who will develop a healing program specific to your needs. Everyone’s typical problem may be substance abuse, however, there is often underlying issues that have been covered up by years of drug dependency. In treatment over the course of many weeks, these concerns will be appropriately resolved, and you will get the support and medication if need be to lead a normal healthy and efficient life. Treatment may include education, group therapy, physical exercise, meditation, family counseling, art or music therapy. Individual counseling (one on one), 12 action meeting, and S.M.A.R.T recovery (self-management and healing training). The amount of support the specific gets in treatment is extremely reliable for long-term success for them self and their household. The program has an extremely efficient relapse prevention program so when the client leaves they insured to have success in their brand-new way of life.

Outpatient Treatment

Outpatient treatment allows the specific to continue to work or care for their family and meets a couple of days or nights a week in between 12-30 hours. Outpatient may also consist of a period of detox where a nurse will monitor your vitals daily and seek advice from a doctor on the course of your care. Outpatient treatment is not for everybody as you will have temptations to utilize drugs and you should be highly focused on staying the course. Outpatient provides you the opportunity gradually to have balance in your life between work, family and your recovery from meth. You will have one on one counseling where you can confide any problems that might be the underlying cause why you began using meth. Possibly there are some household issues with your spouse that need to be uncovered and handled while you are in a safe place with specialists. Outpatient might include family night, where your household can come learn about dependency and other things they can identify with. This type of extreme treatment assists the whole household change and have a higher success. You will participate in educational and support groups with other patients recovering from dependency. You will be presented to 12 step groups and encouraged to continue to go after to leave treatment. An aftercare plan will be established for you, so you have a plan when you leave treatment.

Aftercare

Participating in any type of aftercare can greatly increase the likelihood that a person will stay clean or sober. People also find out the best method to cope in the world. They acquire things such as life skills, anger management tools and the support needed to assist them to see that they can manage their dependency. They find out that they have the power and skills to prosper without falling back into their old behaviors and drug or alcohol dependencies. At least half of all individuals who go into recovery will relapse. Since most of these relapses take place within the very first ninety days following treatment, it is of the upmost importance to have an aftercare program in place. Likewise, individuals in healing who do not take part in relapse prevention programs miss out on the assistance and confidence-building that takes place. The lack of support can also cause them to relapse – a discouraging setback for much of the hard work they did to make it through the recovery process.

Sober living is a fantastic way to transition from inpatient treatment back into life slowly and with the support system one needs to have success in recovery. Sober living provided structure and accountability and random drug testing and breathalyzing. Residents are required to attend twelve steps meeting regularly along with therapy or an outpatient program this depends on each individual and where they are in their recovery process. People may go to work or even school.  The cost of sober living in Arkansas varies throughout the state.

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