Substance Abuse and Treatment in Richmond, California
Drug and alcohol abuse is a growing concern for many communities around the country, including that of Richmond, California. A small to medium sized city in northern California, Richmond is a popular residential area for individuals working in the nearby urban regions of San Francisco and Oakland. Historically, Richmond has enjoyed a relatively stable economy because of its proximity to these larger urban centers and its shipping ports. However, the city does face some problems with crime and substance abuse. This article discusses these issues in more detail, as well as treatment and rehabilitation options. A brief overview of the city demographic characteristics is provided first, followed by crime rates and drug and substance abuse statistics. Opportunities for treatment are then considered.
As of the most recent census, the population of Richmond is about 108,500. The city is racially diverse, with about 31 percent of residents being Caucasian, 27 percent African American, 40 percent Hispanic, 14 percent Asian, and 22 percent identifying as other races or being multiracial. About 25 percent of residents in Richmond are between the ages of 25 and 44, which is the age group most commonly linked to drug and alcohol related crimes and usage problems. The city is predominantly middle class, with the median income being just over $44,000 annually per household. There is a high level of gender equity with respect to income, with females earning just slightly less than males at about $34,000 and $37,000, respectively. However, the per capita income is just $20,000, and about 16 percent of residents live below the federal poverty line. Previous evidence suggests an inverse relationship between income and crime rates, offering one potential explanation for drug and alcohol related crimes in the city. In addition, just 22 percent of residents hold bachelor’s degrees and nearly 25 percent have not graduated from high school. There is also an inverse correlation between education levels and crime rates, offering another potential socioenvironmental explanation for crime and substance use. Many residents commute to nearby San Francisco and Oakland for work due to a lack of industry in the area. However, there are some opportunities for government jobs in the city and Chevron has a petrochemical plant that serves as the largest employer.
Crime Rates and Drug Overdose Statistics
Richmond suffers from high rates of crime and substance abuse, much of which can be attributed to the factors described above (i.e., low socioeconomic status and education). Additionally, Richmond is situated between several large urban centers that expose residents to problems with trafficking. It shipping ports offer another point of drug entry into the city that expose Richmond to drug problems. In the past 20 years, Richmond has been among the most dangerous cities to live in the United States although this classification has been removed due to increased policing efforts. Richmond’s largest problems with crime involve murder, larceny, and vehicle theft. The city has a crime index of seven, making it a safer place to live than just seven percent of all cities in the United States. The total crime rate is about 45 per 1,000 residents, with 36 and nine due to property and violent crimes, respectively. Many of the crimes that are committed in the city are either directly or indirectly related to drug trafficking and usage. The rate of violent crimes in Richmond is more than double that of the remainder of the state of California, while the rate of property crime is about 30 percent higher. Burglaries, thefts, and motor vehicle thefts also occur much more frequently in Richmond than the state of California or the United States. There are several gangs and drug trafficking rings in the city that have been identified by authorities and believed to be heavily involved in the presence of violent and property related crimes. Street gangs have been responsible for several killings in Richmond that are due to drug sales. The presence of these factors makes residents particularly vulnerable to crime victimization and drug abuse/addiction. As many as 19 people overdose on drugs each week in Richmond, most of which are due to opiates.
Substance of Choice
Recent reports suggest that opioid addictions have surged in Richmond and the remainder of northern California. About 20 per 100,000 overdoses were fatal in 2017, which is up from a rate of 16.3 per 100,000 in 2016.
High rates of opiate addictions and overdoses are believed to be caused by several key factors. First, the entire nation has experienced a spike in opiate addictions as a result of prescription painkillers being highly accessible both legally and illegally. In addition, individuals who become addicted to prescription painkillers frequently turn to street heroin because of its high availability and lower cost when obtained illegally. However, the distribution and sale of illicit opiates and heroin is typically regulated by drug trafficking rings and street gangs that consistently compete over territory. Many of the violent crimes that occur in Richmond are a result of gang activity and drug sales.
Additionally, the state’s border with Mexico and location between two large urban regions make Richmond a high access point for drug distribution. Heroin and opiates that are brought in illegally from Mexico easily find their way onto the streets of Richmond and in the hands of both organized cartels and street gangs. As a result, law enforcement agencies have faced a rise in drug related violence and overdoses due to opiates and heroin.
Signs and Risk Factors of Addiction
These increases in drug activity, particularly related to opiates, has made identifying signs and risk factors of addiction increasingly important for residents of Richmond. Signs of heroin and opiate addiction can be both acute and chronic in nature.
Initial signs of heroin and opiate addiction include itchy skin, nausea, vomiting, and dry mouth. Delayed onset symptoms and signs of addiction include irregular sleep patterns, confusion or dizziness, reduced heart rate and respiration, and nodding of the head.
Signs of chronic use include track marks on the body, heart failure, collapsed veins, organ disease, and skin disorders.
Risk factors for heroin and addiction are somewhat more complex and indirect, though some consistent patterns have been identified by experts and scholars. These include social and institutional factors, physiological and genetic factors, and individual and psychological factors. Lower socioeconomic status and education levels serve as risk factors for drug and alcohol use in general. However, this relationship is moderated by a range of individual and environmental factors in the case of heroin. Many heroin addicts are highly educated and come from high socioeconomic backgrounds, but become addicted as a result of first being prescribed opiate based painkillers and then turn to heroin because of its potency and easy access. Genetic history of drug and alcohol abuse is also a significant risk factor for addictions. Psychological factors like sensation seeking and risk taking are also potential risks for heroin and opiate abuse or addiction.
Any substance abuse problem is considered a psychological disorder and treated through a combination of medical and psychological techniques. However, those who become addicted often do not seek help until the problem has grown serious and has elicited legal or medical consequences, or both. Detecting addiction by close friends and relatives is critical because they these problems are often unrecognizable by those who do not known the addict well. Once an addiction has been detected, help should be sought immediately.
Treatment and Rehabilitation Options
Fortunately for the residents of Richmond, there are many treatment and rehabilitation options when an addiction has been identified. Many of the factors that expose Richmond to high rates of drug use also make treatment and rehabilitation options highly accessible, including the proximity to two large cities with some of the world’s best universities and hospitals. With respect to heroin and opiate addiction, there are numerous state of the art residential and outpatient facilities to help clients progress through the difficult process of recovery.
While there are more than 30 treatment and rehabilitation centers for drug and alcohol addiction in Richmond alone, each follows a relatively similar process in the path to recovery. With respect to opiate and heroin addiction, a sequential series of steps is used to foster recovery, which include assessment, pre-intake, intake, detox, inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, aftercare, and sober living. Each of these stages of recovery is discussed briefly below.
Assessment is the first stage on the path of recovery, and paves the way for each subsequent step. This process involves a medical and behavioral screening to help determine is a substance abuse disorder is present, as well as its nature and severity. Furthermore, an individual needs assessment is taken by a medical professional or addictions specialist to make an accurate referral to an appropriate treatment facility. This process involves an in-depth interview, as well as the collection of subjective self-report data to determine contributors to addiction.
Once a referral has been made to an appropriate treatment facility, the pre-intake occurs at that respective center. This is done by a counsellor or addictions specialist who will collect basic information to better inform the subsequent intake process. A pre-intake contains demographic information and confirms information gathered from the assessment process to help begin to plan an individualized path toward recovery.
Following pre-intake, the more extensive intake process occurs. This involves an in-depth interview with a counsellor or addictions specialist who will collect information needed to construct an individualized plan for recovery. During the intake, it is critical for the client to provide honest and accurate information so as to develop the most evidence based and effective treatment program. The program will involve both medical and psychological treatment.
In the case of heroin or opiate addiction, detoxification is necessary. This process involves the supervised administration of a safe alternative while the body rids itself of toxins that propagate chemical dependence. Consistent monitoring is needed in the case of detoxification to provide immediate support as clients navigate this particularly difficult stage of recovery.
Inpatient treatment is also an important step in the path to recovery in the event of heroin or opiate addiction. Because of the difficulties of withdrawal, between one months and as much as six months of care in a residential facility is often needed to help clients develop the psychological skills and tools needed to prevent relapse and cope with addiction. Additionally, social support is a key aspect of inpatient treatment and residential care involves consist individual and group based counselling.
Following inpatient treatment, outpatient care is provided to offer continued support as clients reintegrate with their independent living situations, such as work or school. Outpatient treatment allows for the recovery process to continue and support to be provided in emergency situations while clients begin to rebuild their lives and function independently within the community. Group and individual counselling continue to be important parts of this phase of treatment, which often is needed for the remainder of one’s life.
Following outpatient treatment, aftercare services are available to allow for continued monitoring and to ensure that services remain accessible if they are needed. During this stage of recovery, the client often begins to take accountability for the rehabilitation of other addicts and serves as an important source of social support for these individuals.
Sober living is the ideal outcome following outpatient treatment and involves independent relapse prevention and coping. Instead of completely ridding one’s self of the addictive behaviors, an emphasis is placed on replacing these behaviors with healthier and more productive ones.
The purpose of this article was to discuss substance abuse issues in the city of Richmond, California, as well as treatment and rehabilitation options. An overview of city demographic characteristics was provided first, including factors that are believed to be related to high rates of crime and substance abuse. Signs and risk factors for addiction, particularly related to opiate based prescription drugs and street heroin, were then considered. Finally, rehabilitation options and the rehabilitation process was outlined. While Richmond faces high rates of substance abuse and crime, there are also many of the world’s best treatment options located within 30 minutes of the city. Richmond faces an uphill battle with respect to managing drug abuse and it will be critical for residents to remain vigilant in detecting usage in order to foster a safer environment for close friends and family. The rehabilitative process is fairly consistent within varying treatment centers and there are many low-cost and even free options for residents in order to begin to help many residents recover from individual and socioenvironmental risk factors to drug addiction.