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Friday, October 20, 2017

Oxycodone

Overview

Oxycodone is one of the most highly addictive medicinal opiates used today, with a history of recreational abuse that began to become commonplace in the 1990s with the release of OxyContin. Prescription painkiller abuse is a serious danger in the United States, with nearly 18,000 deaths being attributed to opioid painkiller abuse in 2015 alone.1 Oxycodone is so addictive due to its close interaction with dopamine production in the brain. Oxycodone remains one of the most deadly recreational drugs found today due to its potency, its common use alongside substances that can produce deadly potentiation of the drug’s effects, negative physiological effects, and how easy it is to build a tolerance to it. Oxycodone exhibits short-term effects similar to other painkillers including drowsiness, euphoria, pain reduction, and lethargy. Long term abuse of Oxycodone can lead to a variety of physiological and mental ailments including infections, body deterioration, cardiovascular problems, and neurological decay. Recovery from Oxycodone can be effective through the use of various medications and therapeutic treatments, and rehabilitation facilities offer extensive resources for recovering from Oxycodone addiction in a safe, stable, and comfortable manner.

What is Oxycodone?

Oxycodone is one of the most common opiates found today. Oxycodone carries a reputation for its common usage as an anesthetic and painkiller in medicine, as well as an infamous reputation for its extremely potent addictiveness, common overdoses, and difficult withdrawals when abused recreationally. Oxycodone began its extensive rise in popularity during the late 1990s after OxyContin, a form of oxycodone with a higher dosage per pill in a time release form, was released to the public, giving the drug a much greater capacity for recreational abuse. Opiates are a class of drugs that include opium, heroin, and codeine, among many others. Opiates are differentiated from opioids by the manner in which they are created. Opiates are created from naturally occurring organic compounds called alkaloids that are found in poppies. Poppies are a type of flower common all over the world, but are grown in particular abundance throughout the Middle East and particularly in Afghanistan where they are grown, harvested, and sold in the opium trade. This differs from opioids, which are synthetically created in a lab and include common prescription painkillers such as Demerol, Hydrocodone, and Methadone. Oxycodone comes from a long line of related opiates that have held historical significance in their prevalence and addictiveness. This lineage includes opium, which remained popular throughout the 19th century, followed by morphine, and later heroin during the mid-20th century. Both opiates and opioids are responsible for a deadly epidemic both in the United States and abroad. The National Institute of Drug Abuse estimates nearly 35,000 overdose deaths due to opioids and opiates in 2015, with numbers growing drastically every year.2Overdosing Oxycodone is a frequent risk factor and leads to death if not treated immediately. Those who survive Oxycodone overdose are at risk of brain and neurological damage from cerebral hypoxia. Oxycodone is classified as a Schedule II drug by the CSA, meaning that Oxycodone has severely restricted medical usage and is not considered safe for use in personal settings due to its high potential for abuse.

How Does Oxycodone Addiction Work?

Oxycodone’s deadly addictiveness can be attributed primarily to its effectiveness at mimicking the brain’s natural opiates, which work to allow dopamine to be released. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is colloquially known as the ‘happiness drug’ due to its purpose in producing feelings of well-being and pleasure when released into the brain. When the body is hurt, the brain produces natural opiates that allow dopamine to be released in the areas of the brain commonly responsible for feelings of pain and stress, which works to reduce overall feelings of pain. Oxycodone mimics this process in the brain, allowing dopamine to constantly be produced and released, over-stimulating the brain and associating Oxycodone with the pleasure and happiness that comes from dopamine release. Because the brain isn’t capable of handling such intense rushes of dopamine, dopamine receptors become damaged and make it more difficult to feel pleasure, leading users to use more and more Oxycodone to chase the fleeting euphoria it once offered them. These numerous issues compound to create a strong addiction potential for Oxycodone, which becomes more and more difficult to feed the more it is abused. This deadly selffeeding cycle of addiction is at the root of Oxycodone’s effectiveness at becoming addictive.

Short and Long Term Effects

Oxycodone can be taken orally, smoked, snorted, or injected. Onset of effects varies with the method used to take it, ranging from five seconds when injected to around 40 minutes when taken orally.

The short term effects of Oxycodone are similar to the effects of dopamine in general – only amplified. Users report short-term mental effects such as feelings of:

 

    • Pain reduction

 

    • Intense pleasure

 

    • Relaxation

 

    • Contentment

 

    • Confusion

 

And physical effects such as:

 

    • Heaviness of limbs

 

    • Drowsiness

 

    • Lethargy

 

    • Elevated body temperature

 

Repeated long-term use of Oxycodone leads to physical side effects such as:

 

    • Diminished cardiovascular health – Particularly in the case of intravenous Oxycodone use, Oxycodone has shown to put a large amount of strain on the circulatory system and the heart in particular. Frequent injections can lead to infections and the deterioration of veins until they collapse

 

    • Neurological damage – Frequent abuse of opioid receptors through Oxycodone can lead to both physical and chemical damage, and has shown to diminish the presence of white matter in the brain, which reduces important neural activity such as decision making and judgment skills.

 

    • Diminished digestive health – Digestive health is severely diminished in the body of a frequent Oxycodone user due to a reduction in digestive activity. This can lead to weakened gut fauna, cramping, nausea, constipation, and diarrhea.

 

    • Decay in health of skin, teeth, and hair – Oxycodone abuse can lead to open sores and abscesses on the skin, in the lining of the gum, and even inside the body. This makes the user susceptible to infection and may lead to further complications such as blood poisoning.

 

    • Liver and kidney damage – Frequent use of Oxycodone has shown a correlation with an increased risk of both kidney and liver disease as the body is not capable of healthily processing Oxycodone. The use of additives in Oxycodone also poses a particular threat to the liver and kidneys, as many additives are not meant to be ingested.

 

    • Increased risk of bacterial infection – Oxycodone has shown to significantly increase the risk of bacterial infections both externally and internally due to wounds that can allow bacteria to infect when used intravenously.

 

    • Insomnia – Due to a general decay in personal health as well as frequent interruptions in ordinary circadian activity, Oxycodone users often experience worsening sleeping problems that can develop into insomnia.

 

Long-term use of Oxycodone also carries several mental side effects including:

 

    • Severe addiction – Because of Oxycodone’s addictiveness, both mental and physical addiction are developed very quickly, leading to a complete dependency on the drug.

 

    • Depression – Due to overstimulation of dopamine receptors, Oxycodone frequently leads to depression due to the brain’s inability to properly manage its circadian rhythm and dopamine production.

 

    • Anxiety – Anxiety is a frequent symptom of drug abuse in general, and is common in Oxycodone abuse due to internal factors from the psychological and physical effect of the drug itself, as well as external factors such as pressure family, friends, and work that may all be affected by addiction. This can compound and develop into chronic paranoia.

 

Other risks posed by Oxycodone abuse include:

 

    • Increased risk of HIV – The use of Oxycodone intravenously poses a significantly greater risk of HIV and Hepatitis infection. Reusing and sharing needles are some of the most common methods of transmitting infections.

 

    • Risk of overdose – Oxycodone holds a reputation for how easy it is to overdose on for a good reason. Because Oxycodone and Oxycodone tolerance are so volatile, and potency can differ between different batches, it is very easy to misjudge the amount you can handle and overdose. Death by respiratory failure is common, and survivors are at risk of permanent neurological damage.

 

    • Pregnancy – Chronic Oxycodone usage can lead to a wide variety of difficulties with pregnancy. This includes both fatal and nonfatal birth defects, premature birth, stillbirth, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, and various other dangerous abnormalities.

 

Oxycodone withdrawal is a notoriously difficult process to go through, and includes withdrawal symptoms such as:

 

    • Cold sweats

 

    • Uncontrollable shaking and shivering

 

    • Diarrhea

 

    • Nausea and vomiting

 

    • Elevated heart rate

 

    • Muscle aches and cramps

 

    • Insomnia

 

 

Methods of Treatment

Pharmacological:

Treatment for Oxycodone addiction via medication is one of the most common and effective forms of treatment available. Due to the strength of Oxycodone’s addictive potential and the severity of withdrawal symptoms, treatment through medication aims at minimizing as many adverse reactions to withdrawal as possible. Treatment through medication begins with a detoxification process in which the body is given time to expel Oxycodone from the body, which is often accompanied by common withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. Once the user has gone through detox, they begin treatment with certain opioid substitutes. These drugs function similarly to Oxycodone in their reaction with dopamine, but to a lesser degree, and through significantly safer and less addictive chemicals. This allows a gradual transition from addiction to sobriety while minimalizing unpleasant side effects of withdrawal that are likely to lead to relapse. Buprenorphine is a common medication used in Oxycodone treatment. Buprenorphine is particularly effective due to its ability to satiate opiate cravings without producing any high, which is due to it being a partial opioid agonist. This means that when Buprenorphine is ingested, it will only activate opioid receptors in the brain to the point where cravings are satiated, but without producing a high. Other medications include Methadone, one of the earliest medications used in Oxycodone treatment that works as a full opioid agonist, and Naltrexone, an opioid antagonist which completely blocks the functioning of opioids when ingested. Each of these medications functions differently and is prescribed on a case-to-case basis to best fit the needs of the individual undergoing treatment.

Therapeutic:

Other forms of treatment for Oxycodone addiction come in the form of psychological and behavioral therapies. These treatments focus on the behaviors and habits that led to addiction in the first place in an attempt to remove the root of addiction. Amongst these forms of treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is one of the most common, and is growing in support from the scientific and clinical communities all the time. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy sees substance abuse such as Oxycodone addict as a symptom of a greater psychological issue, and not a cause in and of itself. By utilizing reflective and analytic techniques, an addict is better able to understand what led them to addiction in the first place, change bad habits, and avoid behaviors that may trigger cravings.

Rehabilitation

There are two main types of rehabilitation: inpatient and outpatient. Inpatient rehabilitation refers to programs that require patients to check themselves into a facility where they will undergo all rehabilitation treatment. Although inpatient rehabilitation requires a greater level of commitment, the facilities, environment, and support offered by these facilities are conducive to a stable and effective recovery. Inpatient facilities generally offer services such as psychiatrists, counselors, group therapy, and all of the living facilities necessary for a comfortable stay. The extensive support offered by these facilities, combined with an environment that is focused on self-improvement and wellness is a great combination for providing the motivation to push through the difficulties of withdrawal and to establish good healthy habits to prevent relapsing once you leave. This form of rehabilitation is effective for those who would benefit from a stricter more scheduled recovery in which the outside distractions and temptations of life won’t get in the way of focusing on recovery.

Outpatient rehabilitation is based on the principle of spending only part of your time in recovery programs while offering you the freedom to continue daily living on your own. Generally these programs will require ten to twelve hours of commitment per week spent in a treatment facility participating in similar activities to those done in an inpatient facility such as group therapy, counseling, and even detox. While this does offer easier access to drugs, some may find being able to maintain their normal daily schedule more beneficial. This form of rehabilitation is effective for those who require more freedom and contact with friends and family.

Both forms of rehabilitation are effective solutions at combatting Oxycodone addiction, and there is a variety of different types of both inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation to suit the personal needs of each individual.

References

 

 

    1. “Overdose Death Rates.” NIDA, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6 Jan. 2017, www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates.

 

    1. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ), et al. “Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables.” SAMSHA Web Archives, SAMSHA, Sept. 2011, http://archive.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2011SummNatFindDetTables/NSDUHDetTabsPDFWHTML2011/2k11DetailedTabs/Web/HTML/NSDUH-DetTabsTOC2011.htm.